After the end of the war, the two countries concluded a number of treaties to address bilateral relations, including the pioneering Simla Agreement of 1972. The two countries have also signed contracts for the resumption of trade, suspension of visa requirements and resumption of telegraph and postal exchanges. When India and Pakistan attempted to re-establish diplomatic and functional relations after the Second World War between them, they created a series of interlocking treaties. Although the treaty network has not reduced or eliminated cross-border violence between India and Pakistan, it shows the ability of states to find areas of cooperation that can ultimately spread to other issues, the improving mutual cooperation. For example, when the international conflict developed, India and Pakistani diplomats held joint talks to allow Indian pilgrims access to the Kartarpur Sikh Shrine in Pakistan. While it is clear that there have been cross-border control attacks and air struggles between the two sides, it is difficult to verify the claims and counter-claims of both countries regarding objectives and effects. Pakistani officials have provided evidence, which has also been disseminated on social media, on the Indian jet that crashed and on captured pilots, but allegations of six successful strikes in India-controlled Kashmir are more difficult to verify. Despite abundant evidence of its cross-control attacks, Indian allegations that hundreds of people were killed in an airstrike on a Jaish training base and shot down a Pakistani jet, credibility is lacking because New Delhi has not provided evidence. But a year later, India accused Pakistani groups of attacking its air base in Pathankot, northern Punjab. Modi also cancelled a planned visit to Islamabad, Pakistan`s capital, for a regional summit in 2017. Since then, discussions between neighbours have not progressed.
British rule over the Indian subcontinent ended in 1947 with the creation of new states: the lords of Pakistan and India as the post-war country of British India. The British Paramountcy on the 562 Indian primary states ended. Under the Indian Independence Act of 1947, «Her Majesty`s sovereignty over the Indian States is extinguished and therefore all treaties and agreements in force between Her Majesty and the leaders of the Indian States at the time of the enactment of this Law.»   It was then left to the states to decide whether they wanted to join India or Pakistan or remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the prime states, had a predominantly Muslim population, ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. He decided to remain independent because he expected the State`s Muslims to be unhappy with India`s membership and that Hindus and Sikhs would become vulnerable if he joined Pakistan.   On 11 August, Maharadja dismissed its Prime Minister, Ram Chandra Kak, who had spoken in favour of independence. Observers and scientists interpret this action as a propensity to join India.   The Pakistanis decided to anticipate this eventuality by searching Kashmir by force if necessary.  The Kashmir conflict is a territorial dispute around the Kashmir region, particularly between India and Pakistan, with China playing a third-party role.  The conflict began after the partition of India in 1947, when India and Pakistan claimed the entire former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, with Pakistan recognizing Chinese sovereignty over trans-karakorum and Aksai Chin since 1963.  It is a dispute over the region that has degenerated into three wars between India and Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes.