Paris Agreement December 2015

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The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming described in Article 2, in order to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by:[11], while the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the overall inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide «integrated flexibility» to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework. [58] The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report. [58] The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework. [58] In the end, all parties recognized the need to «prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,» but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded. [11] The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses. [56] InDCs become NDCs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time.

China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. Gurdial Singh Nijar, speaking on behalf of like-minded developing countries, agreed with the assessment and said per capita income was low in India and China.

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